Flashcards on AP Statistics

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What is the difference between a parameter and a statistic?

A parameter is a characteristic of an entire population, whereas a statistic is a characteristic of a sample taken from that population.

What is a Type I error?

A Type I error is when an analyst rejects a null hypothesis that is actually true.

What is a Type II error?

A Type II error is when an analyst fails to reject a null hypothesis that is actually false.

What is the formula for standard deviation?

The formula for standard deviation is the square root of the variance.

What is a confidence interval?

A confidence interval is an interval in which an unknown population parameter lies, based on a sampled statistic and a level of confidence.

What is the normal distribution?

The normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is symmetric about its mean.

What is a z-score?

A z-score measures how many standard deviations a data point is away from the mean, in terms of units of standard deviation.

What is the formula for the margin of error?

The formula for the margin of error is the critical value times the standard error, where the critical value is based on the level of significance and the degrees of freedom.

What is a sampling distribution?

A sampling distribution is the distribution of all possible sample means or sample proportions, taken repeatedly from a population.

What is the central limit theorem?

The central limit theorem states that the sampling distribution of sample means or sample proportions will be approximately normal, regardless of the population's distribution, given a sufficiently large sample size.

What is the difference between correlation and causation?

Correlation is a relationship between two variables, whereas causation is the assertion that one variable is responsible for causing another.

What is the difference between a one-tailed test and a two-tailed test?

A one-tailed test is a hypothesis test where the null hypothesis is rejected if the observed statistic falls completely in one tail of the sampling distribution, whereas a two-tailed test is a hypothesis test where the null hypothesis is rejected if the observed statistic falls far into either tail of the sampling distribution.

What is the difference between a sample and a population in statistics?

A sample is a subset of a population, whereas a population is the entire group of individuals or outcomes that a study is targeting.

What is the difference between a histogram and a bar graph?

A histogram is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution, showing bars of different heights whose bases are the intervals into which the data is divided, whereas a bar graph is a graphical representation of data using bars of different heights or lengths.

What is a chi-squared test?

A chi-squared test is a statistical hypothesis test where the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-squared distribution.

What is the difference between a parameter and a statistic?

A parameter is a characteristic of an entire population, whereas a statistic is a characteristic of a sample taken from that population.

What is a Type I error?

A Type I error is when an analyst rejects a null hypothesis that is actually true.

What is a Type II error?

A Type II error is when an analyst fails to reject a null hypothesis that is actually false.

What is the formula for standard deviation?

The formula for standard deviation is the square root of the variance.

What is a confidence interval?

A confidence interval is an interval in which an unknown population parameter lies, based on a sampled statistic and a level of confidence.

What is the normal distribution?

The normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is symmetric about its mean.

What is a z-score?

A z-score measures how many standard deviations a data point is away from the mean, in terms of units of standard deviation.

What is the formula for the margin of error?

The formula for the margin of error is the critical value times the standard error, where the critical value is based on the level of significance and the degrees of freedom.

What is a sampling distribution?

A sampling distribution is the distribution of all possible sample means or sample proportions, taken repeatedly from a population.

What is the central limit theorem?

The central limit theorem states that the sampling distribution of sample means or sample proportions will be approximately normal, regardless of the population's distribution, given a sufficiently large sample size.

What is the difference between correlation and causation?

Correlation is a relationship between two variables, whereas causation is the assertion that one variable is responsible for causing another.

What is the difference between a one-tailed test and a two-tailed test?

A one-tailed test is a hypothesis test where the null hypothesis is rejected if the observed statistic falls completely in one tail of the sampling distribution, whereas a two-tailed test is a hypothesis test where the null hypothesis is rejected if the observed statistic falls far into either tail of the sampling distribution.

What is the difference between a sample and a population in statistics?

A sample is a subset of a population, whereas a population is the entire group of individuals or outcomes that a study is targeting.

What is the difference between a histogram and a bar graph?

A histogram is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution, showing bars of different heights whose bases are the intervals into which the data is divided, whereas a bar graph is a graphical representation of data using bars of different heights or lengths.

What is a chi-squared test?

A chi-squared test is a statistical hypothesis test where the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-squared distribution.

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