Flashcards on Sedimentary Rocks

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What is sediment?

Small, solid particles or fragments of material transported and deposited by wind, water, or ice.

How are sedimentary rocks formed?

They are formed from the accumulation, compaction, and cementation of sediment.

What is the process of sedimentary rock formation?

Weathering and erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation.

Name an example of a sedimentary rock.

Sandstone

What is the difference between biological and chemical sedimentary rocks?

Biological sedimentary rocks form from organic remains, while chemical sedimentary rocks form by the precipitation of dissolved minerals from water.

What is metamorphic rock?

Rock formed from the transformation of pre-existing rocks through intense heat and pressure.

What is foliation in a metamorphic rock?

Alignment of mineral grains, giving it a layered or banded appearance.

What is an index mineral?

A mineral formed under specific temperature and pressure conditions, used to determine the degree of metamorphism.

How are metamorphic rocks formed?

Through heat and pressure causing minerals to recrystallize and form new minerals, deformation, and recrystallization.

Name an example of a metamorphic rock.

Marble

Why are metamorphic rocks stronger than the original material?

The intense heat and pressure cause minerals to recrystallize and form new mineral bonds, creating a more interlocked and tightly packed structure.

What is the rock cycle?

The continuous process describing how rocks and minerals are formed, broken down, and transformed over time.

What is onion-skin weathering?

The peeling away of outer layers of rocks in thin sheets due to repeated cycles of heating and cooling.

What is frost shattering?

The fracturing of rocks due to the expansion of water as it freezes in cracks.

What are the different types of weathering?

Physical, chemical, and biological weathering.

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Test Your Knowledge


How are sedimentary rocks formed?



Which process involves the alignment of mineral grains in metamorphic rocks?



Which type of weathering involves the breakdown of rocks through chemical reactions?



Which sedimentary rock is formed from the accumulation of organic remains?



Which process involves the solidification and binding of sediment particles in sedimentary rocks?



What type of rock is formed from the transformation of pre-existing rocks?



What is the outermost layer of rocks peeling away in thin sheets called?



Which type of weathering involves the breakdown of rocks by living organisms?



Which sedimentary rock is formed by the precipitation of dissolved minerals?



What is the continuous process describing how rocks and minerals are formed, broken down, and transformed over time?




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